There are individuals who, due to specific health issues, may need to eat or drink on Yom Kippur. A person who is in an immediate situation of pikuach nefesh must eat or drink as much as he needs. However, often, a person is not currently in a life-threatening condition, i.e., pikuach nefesh, but must eat or drink to avoid reaching a life-threatening situation. In this case, who much may this person eat?
In this case, should he should say the hamosi blessing before eating. Furthermore, if he eats a kezayit, which is a bit less than 30 grams, then he should say birkat hamazon. What about netilat yadayim? If a person eats only 30 grams, then he washes his hands, i.e., netilat yadayim, without a blessing. If he eats the quantity of two olives, e.g, if he ate another thirty grams ten minutes later, then he should say the al netilat yadayim blessing. Hacham Ovadia Yosef rules that one who washes netilat yadayim on Yom Kippur may wash up to his wrists, as this washing is not for pleasure (letaanug).
Eating on Yom Kippur
- It is absolutely forbidden to eat or drink any amount of food on Yom Kippur. 
- Everyone is obligated to fast on Yom Kippur including women who are pregnant or nursing (there is a serious medical concern one should consult one’s Rabbi). 
- It is permissible to swallow one’s saliva on Yom Kippur. 
- Someone for whom fasting Yom Kippur involves a serious health concern absolutely must ask a doctor and Rabbi whether he/she should eat on Yom Kippur. If the doctor (and Rabbi) ascertain that a person shouldn’t fast then that person should not fast even if he thinks he doesn’t need to eat. In such a case, one may not be strict upon oneself to fast as we are commanded to live by the Torah and not die by it (Chas VeShalom) and all the ways of the Torah are kind and pleasant. 
Those Who Must Eat
- In cases when one needs to eat on Yom Kippur (see above) one should eat less than a 2/3 of a KeBaytzah and then wait Kedi Achilat Pras (according to some this is 9 minutes) before eating again, and for drinks less than a Meloh Lugmav and wait Kedi Achilat Pras or at least Kedi Shtiyat Revi'it before drinking again. If the doctors assess that this is insufficient (after consultation with the doctor and Rabbi) one may eat as much as needed. 
- A person who is a Choleh SheEin Bo skana is permissible to take medicine on Yom Kippur if it doesn’t have a good taste. If one needs to have it with liquid one should have mouthwash. 
- Someone who needs to eat on Yom Kippur (see above) doesn’t need to make Kiddish.  If he says Birkat Hamazon he should say Yom Kippur in Yaaleh V'yavo.
- Someone who is suffering from a bad headache may swallow an Aspirin capsule alone. 
- One who has a throat infection, a fever, or a headache may drink a quantity of water that is "less than the permitted amount" (2 ounces). 
- A person with diarrhea's condition theoretically may be such that he must drink on Yom Kippur.  A rabbi and doctor should be consulted.
- If there is no doctor available to determine the medical situation, one with hepatitis may drink "less than the permitted amount" on Yom Kippur. 
- Some cancer patients are prohibited to fast on Yom Kippur, while others, who are authorized by a doctor, are permitted to fast. 
- Some weak, elderly people are prohibited to fast on Yom Kippur. 
- A pregnant woman who is suffering from bleeding must drink on Yom Kippur. 
All references are to the verses and Rashi's commentary, unless otherwise stated
- Why were heaven and earth specifically chosen as witnesses?
32:1 – They endure forever.
- How is the Torah like rain?
32:2 – The Torah gives life and promotes growth like rain.
- How is G-d "faithful without injustice"?
32:4 – He is "faithful" by rewarding the righteous, and "without injustice" by rewarding even the wicked for any good deeds.
- Why is G-d called "tzaddik"?
32:4 – All will agree that His judgments are righteous.
- How many major floods did G-d bring upon the world?
32:7 – Two. One in the time of Adam's grandson Enosh and one in the time of Noach.
- What group of people does the Torah call "fathers"? Cite an example.
32:7 – The Prophets. Elisha called the Prophet Eliyahu "My Father." (Melachim II 2:12).
- Why did G-d separate the world's nations into exactly 70?
32:8 – To correspond to the 70 Bnei Yisrael who entered Egypt.
- Why is the merit of the Jewish People's ancestry called a "rope"?
32:9 – Their merit is "woven from" the merits of the Avot.
- How is G-d's behavior toward the Jewish People like an eagle's behavior toward its offspring?
32:12 – He mercifully wakes them gently, hovering over them, and carrying them on His "wings".
- Regarding the Jewish People's punishment, G-d says, "I will spend my arrows on them." What is the positive aspect of this phrase?
32:23 – "The arrows will be spent" implies that the afflictions will cease but the Jewish People will not.
- How does the idea of "chillul Hashem" prevent the nations from destroying the Jewish People?
32:27 – The nations would attribute their success to their might and the might of their gods. G-d would not let His name be desecrated like this.
- What will happen to the nations that conquer the Jewish People?
32:35 – They will eventually be punished.
- When G-d overturns a nation that persecutes the Jewish People, His attribute of Mercy is "replaced" by which attribute?
32:41 – His attribute of Justice.
- When G-d punishes the heathen nations, for whose sins does He exact punishment?
32:42 – For their sins and the sins of their ancestors.
- How will G-d's punishment change the way the nations view the Jewish People?
32:43 – They will view the Jewish People as praiseworthy for cleaving to G-d.
- On what day was Ha'azinu taught to the Jewish People?
32:44 – The Shabbat upon which Moshe died.
- Verse 32:44 calls Yehoshua "Hoshea." Why?
32:44 – To indicate that although he was the Jewish People's leader, he still maintained a humble bearing.
- In verse 32:47, what does "it is not empty from you" mean?
32:47 – That you will receive reward for studying Torah and that there is nothing meaningless in the Torah.
- Why did G-d tell Moshe that he would die a similar death to that of Aharon?
32:50 – Because Moshe wanted this.
- If Moshe had spoken to the rock rather than striking it, what would the Jewish People have learned?
32:51 – The Jewish People would have reasoned as follows: If a rock, which receives neither reward nor punishment, obeys G-d's commands, all the more so should they.
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