Newsletter Parashat Ki Tetze



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Summer Timetable 5781 – 2021

מוצאי שבת



סוף זמן קראת שמע


פלג מנחה (תה״ד)

פלג מנחה (לבוש)

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Earliest Candle lighting

Minha & Kabbalat Shabbat*



















20/21 Aug

כי תצא

For those not in the Bet Hakeneset, but wishing to bring in Shabbat with the Kahal, candles should be lit about 30 minutes after the time listed for Minha and Kabbalat Shabbat. (Unless the time listed in the ‘latest candle lighting’ column is earlier, when candles should be lit by that time, in all cases.

Q & A Parashat Ki Tetze
All references are to the verses and Rashi's commentary, unless otherwise stated
  1. Why must a captured woman mourn her family for a month in her captor's house?
    21:13 – So her captor will find her unattractive.
  2. What fraction of the inheritance does a first-born receive if he has a) one brother? b) two brothers?
    21:17 – a) 2/3 b) 1/2
  3. What will become of a ben sorer u'moreh if his parents don't bring him to court?
    21:22 – He will eventually rob and kill to support his physical indulgences.
  4. Why is it a degradation to G-d to hang a criminal's body on the gallows overnight?
    21:23 – Because humans are made in G-d's image; and because the Jewish People are G-d's children.
  5. What do you do if you find a lost object that costs money to maintain?
    22:2 – Sell it and save the money for the owner.
  6. Why does the Torah forbid wearing the clothing of the opposite gender?
    22:5 – It leads to immorality.
  7. Why does the Torah link the mitzvah of sending away the mother-bird with the mitzvah of making a railing on the roof of your house?
    22:8 – To teach that one mitzvah leads to another, and to prosperity.
  8. When is it permitted to wear wool and linen?
    22:12 – Wool tzitzit on a linen garment.
  9. What three things happen to a man who falsely slanders his bride?
    22:18 – He receives lashes, pays a fine of 100 silver selah, and may never divorce her against her will.
  10. Although the Egyptians enslaved the Jewish People, the Torah allows marriage with their third-generation converts. Why?
    23:8 – Because they hosted Yaakov and his family during the famine.
  11. Why is causing someone to sin worse than killing him?
    23:9 – Murder takes away life in this world, while causing someone to sin takes away his life in the World to Come.
  12. If one charges interest to his fellow Jew, how many commandments has he transgressed?
    23:21 – Three; two negative commandments and a positive commandment.
  13. What is the groom's special obligation to his bride during their first year together?
    24:5 – To gladden her.
  14. When is a groom required to fight in a non-obligatory war?
    24:5 – When he remarries his ex-wife.
  15. What type of object may one not take as collateral?
    24:6 – Utensils used to prepare food.

Halachot from Maran Rabbi Ovadia Yosef Ztz'l

שאלה: האם מותר לאכול פת לחם בלא נטילת ידים, באופן שהאוכל אינו נוגע בלחם בידיו אלא באמצעות מפית וכדומה?

תשובה: בגמרא במסכת חולין (דף קז:) אמרו, התירו מפה )כלומר התירו אכילת פת על ידי שיעטוף ידיו במפה, בלא נטילת ידים) לאוכלי תרומה (שהכהנים שהיו באים לאכול תרומה בזמן שבית המקדש היה קיים, היו מחוייבים ליטול ידיהם קודם אכילתם, כדי שלא יטמאו את התרומה במגעם, והקילו עליהם חכמים, שאם רצו, אינם מוכרחים ליטול ידיהם, ורשאים לאכול את תרומתם באופן שלא יגעו בה בידיהם אלא בהפסק מפה או כפפות וכדומה) ולא התירו מפה לאוכלי טהרות (שבזמן שבית המקדש היו סתם בני אדם שאינם כהנים, שנוהגים בחסידות ואוכלים את כל מאכליהם בטהרה, כדי שלא יטמאו מאכליהם, וממילא אותם בני אדם הוצרכו גם כן ליטול ידיהם לפני שהיו אוכלים כל דבר, כדי שלא יטמא במגעם, ולאנשים אלו לא הקילו רבותינו לאכול באמצעות מפה בלא נטילת ידים) וטעם הדבר שלא הקילו בזה אלא לכהנים הבאים לאכול תרומה ולא לסתם בני אדם, פירש רש”י, שהוא מפני שהכהנים היו מורגלים מאד כל ימיהם לאכול את כל מאכליהם בטהרה (לפי שאצלם נוגע הדבר לאיסור ממש) ולפיכך אין לחוש שיטעו ויגעו בידיהם במאכליהם, על כן היקלו להם שיאכלו לאכול בלא נטילת ידים באמצעות מפה, מה שאין כן סתם בני אדם, שאינם רגילים וזהירים כל כך לאכול בטהרה (שהרי אצלם אין הדבר נוגע לאיסור ממש וממילא אינם זהירים וזריזים כל כך בזה) יש לחוש שיגעו בטעות בידיהם במאכל, לפיכך אין להקל להם לאכול באמצעות מפה בלא נטילת ידיים.

ולאור האמור, כתבו רבים מרבותינו הראשונים, לעניין נטילת ידיים שבזמנינו קודם אכילת פת לחם, שמכיון שבודאי אין אנו בכלל אותם כהנים שהיו זריזים וזהירים לשמור על מאכליהם בטהרה, ממילא תקנת רבותינו ליטול ידים קודם הסעודה שייכת בכל מקרה, ואין להקל בה על ידי אכילה באמצעות מפית. והעושה כן, לבטל נטילת ידים מכיון שאוכל על ידי מפית, מבטל תקנת חז”ל. וכן פסקו הטור ומרן השלחן ערוך (סימן קסג) ומובן שכל זה שייך גם לענין הבא לאכול דבר שטיבולו במשקה שביארנו בעבר שחייב בנטילת ידיים.

ולסיכום: אין להקל לאכול פת לחם בלא נטילת ידים, אפילו אם אינו נוגע בפת בידו, וכגון שאוכל באמצעות מפית וכדומה,
שבכל מקרה חייב בנטילת ידים. אלא שעדיין יש אופן שבו הקילו לאדם לאכול פת בלא נטילת ידים, וכמו שנבאר בהלכה הבאה.

Question: May one eat bread without washing one’s hands if one does not touch the bread with one’s hands directly and instead holds it with a napkin and like?

Answer: The Gemara in Masechet Chullin (107b) states: “The Sages permitted a cloth (i.e. they permitted eating bread without first washing one’s hands by wrapping one’s hands in a cloth) for those eating Terumah (meaning that during the time when the Bet Hamikdash still stood, before eating Terumah, the Kohanim were required to wash their hands first so as not to impurify the Terumah by touching it. Our Sages ruled leniently for them that, if they wished, they would not need to wash their hands; rather, they would be permitted to eat their Terumah in a way where they would not touch it directly, i.e. by wrapping their hands in a cloth or by wearing gloves and the like). However, they did not permit a cloth for those eating their food amid purity (for in the times of the Bet Hamikdash, there were pious non-Kohanim who would eat all of their foods amid purity so as not to impurify their foods. These individuals would also need to wash their hands before eating any food so as not to impurify the food by touching it. Our Sages did not provide the leniency of eating without washing one’s hands by using a cloth for such people).” Rashi there explains that the reason why our Sages were lenient regarding this matter only with regards to Kohanim eating their Terumah and not for any other people is because the Kohanim were quite accustomed to eating all of their foods amid purity all their lives (for with regards to them, this matter could sometimes border on an actual prohibition) and there is therefore no need to be concerned that they will mistakenly touch their food with their hands. Thus, our Sages were lenient and allowed them to eat without first washing their hands through the use of a cloth. On the other hand, regarding other people who were not as accustomed and careful to eat their food amid purity (for this matter never borders on an actual prohibition for them and they were therefore less meticulous in this regard), we must be concerned that they will mistakenly touch the food with their hands. Therefore, there is no room for leniency for them to eat with the use of a cloth without first washing their hands.

Based on this, many Rishonim deduce from here regarding the hand-washing we perform before eating bread that since we can certainly not be included in the category of the Kohanim who were especially careful to keep their foods pure, the rabbinic edict to wash one’s hands before eating a bread meal is applicable in any case and one may not act leniently by eating with the use of a napkin. If one does eat with the use of a napkin in order to circumvent the requirement to wash one’s hands, one has nullified an edict of our Sages. The Tur and Maran Ha’Shulchan Aruch (Chapter 163) rule likewise. All this applies to one who would like to eat a food dipped in liquid (which requires a hand-washing before) as well.

Summary: One may not act leniently and eat bread without first washing one’s hands even if one is not directly touching the bread with one’s hands, for instance, if one is eating with a napkin and the like; in any case, one is obligated to wash one’s hands. However, there is one situation where the Sages were lenient and permitted one to eat bread without first washing one’s hands. We shall discuss this further, G-d-willing, in the following Halacha.